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Assignment Questions

Chemical and Biological Warfare

This report must be about Chemical & Biological Warfare.

Here is a copy of the students overview for this Term Paper, as you can see it was about basic descriptions and uses of these weapons.

Chemical & Biological Warfare
As we study the ramifications of chemical and biological warfare let us first understand the definition of each term. The following is the definition of each term.
Chemical warfare noun (Concise Encyclopedia)
Use of lethal or incapacitating chemical weapons in war, and the methods of combating such agents. Chemical weapons include choking agents such as the chlorine and phosgene gas employed first by the Germans and later by the Allies in World War I; blood agents such as hydrogen cyanide or cyanogen gas, which block red blood cells from taking up oxygen; blister agents such as sulfur gas and Lewisite, also dispensed as a gas, which burn and blister the skin; and nerve agents such as Tabun, Sarin, Soman, and VX, which block the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles, heart, and diaphragm. The horrific casualties suffered in World War I led to the 1925 Geneva Protocol, which made it illegal to employ chemical weapons but did not ban their production. Chemical weapons were used a number of times afterward, most notably by Italy in Ethiopia (1935??”36), by Japan in China (1938??”42), by Egypt in Yemen (1966??”67), and by Iran and Iraq against each other (1984??”88). During the Cold War the Soviet Union and U.S. built up enormous chemical arsenals; these were dismantled under the terms of the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention, which prohibits all development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, or transfer of such weapons. Not all countries have signed the convention, and many are suspected of pursuing clandestine chemical programs. Many
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Military forces have adopted various defensive measures, including chemical sensors, protective garments and gas masks, decontaminants, and injectable antidotes, and some have reserved the option of retaliating in kind to any chemical attack. In 1995 a religious cult killed 12 civilians and injured thousands more with Sarin gas in Tokyo; this pointed out the power of chemical agents as weapons of terror as well as the difficulty of protecting civilian populations. See also biological warfare”.
From a prospect let us first review the use of Chemical warfare. As early as World War 1 we saw the first use of chemical weapons when Germany used Mustard Gas against the Allies. This gas was deadly when used as it would literally destroy the lungs of the individual that breathed in this gas. Most of the soldiers during WW1 carried gas masks but if you were hit with the gas and did not have the mask on you were literally dead. Your fellow soldiers may carry you out of the area where the gas was but there was no way that you would survive.
In the modern day the use of chemical weapons becomes deadlier than ever before. We have seen the use of these weapons in Iraq, these chemicals were used to kill thousands of Kurds, which were of a different tribal and cultural relationship in Iran.
Biological Weapons
“The act of bioterrorism can range from a simple hoax to the actual use of
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these biological weapons, also referred to as agents. A number of nations have or are seeking to acquire biological warfare agents, and there are concerns that terrorist groups or individuals may acquire the technologies and expertise to use these destructive agents. Biological agents may be used for an isolated assassination, as well as to cause incapacitation or death to thousands. If the environment is contaminated, a long-term threat to the population could be created”.
These biological weapons also referred to as agents. A number of nations have or are seeking to acquire biological warfare agents, and there are concerns that terrorist groups or individuals may acquire the technologies and expertise to use these destructive agents. Biological agents may be used for an isolated assassination, as well as to cause incapacitation or death to thousands. If the environment is contaminated, a long-term threat to the population could be created.
Our first experience with Biological Weapons was after 9/11 when Anthrax was mailed to members of our government. There is a vast difference between chemical weapons and biological weapons. Chemical weapons as we have seen have a limited effect and do not have the ability to be transmitted from individual to individual. When we look at Biological weapons we are looking at a weapon
that can have catastrophic effects on an entire nations population.

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