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Assignment Questions

Christian Spirituality

I need an 20 page research paper, 12 font, Times New Romans, Standard Academic Form (Kate Turabian , a manual of style). Paper title : Jarena Lee during the 18th and 19th Century Transformation. The paaper must utilize solid historial method (emphasizing primary sources and context). the paper will be gradedfor 1) development 2) content 3) analysis 4) effectivenss of summary and conclusion and 5) academic form. If not written using the turabian style, the grade will be reduced by one (1) letter grade.

I have already completed three pages of this paper and would like to be able to email them to you for changes toward incorporation into this total paper of 20 pages. I amhave abibliography of books that I have either read or reviewed portions of for completion of this paper. The bibliography included the following:

Albanese, Catherine L., Stein, Stephen (ed.), Sisters of the Spirit; Three Black Women?s Autobiographies of the Nineteenth Century. Bloomingdale and Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 1986.

Brekus, Catherine. Female Preaching in the Early Nineteenth – Century America. The Center for Christian Ethics at Baylor University (2009): pp. 20-29.

Ditmire, Susan.”Cape May County.” usgennet. http//www.usgennet.org/usa/nj capemay/Jarena

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. Spiritual Narratives, The Schomburg Library of Nineteenth-Century Black Women Writers. (Lee, Jarena, Religious Experience and Journal of Mrs. Jarena Lee, Giving an Account of her Call to Preach the Gospel). New York and Oxford, et al, Oxford University Press, 1988. pp. 3-97

Lee, Jarena. Religious Experience and Journal of Jarena Lee, Giving an Account of her Call to Preach the Gospel. Philadelphia, Kessinger Legacy, 1849.

McMickle, Marvin A. An Encyclopedia of African American Heritage. Valley forge, Pa., Judson Press, 2002. pp. 70-71.

Raboteau, Albert J., Canaan Land; A Religious History of African Americans. New York, Oxford University Press, 2001.pp.37-39, 128-129. pp. 18-35, 36-55.

Sernett, Milton C., African American Religious History A Documentary Witness, 2nd Edition. Durham and London, Duke University Press, 1999. pp. 13-32, 164-184.

Tyson, John R. Invitation To Christian Spirituality-An Ecumenical Spirituality. New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press. 1999. pp 342-50.

I have also attached the first three pages to be re-written, changed, done away with, etc????
As the state of religion entered the 18th Century, there appears a revival, the growth was overwhelming. More people were attending church than had been realized in centuries before. Churches from all denominations were popping up throughout established colonies and cities within the United States. This religious growth was also occurring in England, Wales and Scotland. This was a time referred to as ?The Great Awakening.? Evangelism was front and center; preaching of the Old and New Testament summoned forth parishioners. Churches were erected-both grand and small/by the rich and poor, however at this time, it did not matter which class system was inside; everyone was finding comfort in church attendance and the hearing of the word.
The largest Protestant groups consisted of Presbyterians, Baptists and Methodists. Those denominations (Anglicans, Quakers, and Congregationalists) established earlier were unable to keep up with this growing Protestant revolution.
It was during the 18th century (1787) that the Constitution of the US was written. Thomas Jefferson and John Adams were both on the committee. They were both in agreement that religion was a freedom and religious beliefs should not be dictated to anyone. Many people that had migrated from England and other countries enjoyed this new found religious freedom. They were no longer told (forced) into participating and following the dictate of any particular religion, e.g., Catholicism.
It is also in the 18th Century that we find the family of the Wesley?s, a mother of fortitude and conviction, who through her efforts assured the success of her children. Two of her sons, John and Charles Wesley became ministers and were prominent in the Methodist Revival. The brothers traveled from city to city preaching 3 to 4 times a day promoting Christian consciousness and Methodism.
It is interesting to note that during the time of this ?Second Great Awakening? (beginning of the19th Century) that Thomas Jefferson (President of the US from 1801-1809) did not share the orthodox belief of most of that present day society. He believed rather in Deism which is the belief that God created the world; however he does not become involved with the activities of the world and those therein. He believed that Jesus was a decent and moral character, however not one that performed miracles and not the son of God. His good friend, John Adams? (President from 1797-1801) was reared in the Congregationalist denomination. As an adult he rejected the belief in the Trinity and became a Unitarian. Two presidents, back to back dared to have beliefs strangely different from the Christian community of that era.
As we moved further into the 19th (1863) century we find President Abraham Lincoln and the writing of the Emancipation Proclamation. The proclamation declared “that all persons held as slaves are, and henceforward shall be free.” During this time church attendance once again is on the rise.
Synonymous with the Second Great Awakening brought Camp meetings lead by Francis Asbury (1745-1816), a Circuit Riding Methodist Bishop. During these meetings there was what was referred to ?falling exercises.? Gospel music was full of emotionalism and excessive behavior. Many lay persons were involved and women were even participants in bringing the word. Revivalism was on the move, law books had scriptural responses and Social Reform as it pertained to religion was on the move.
Here we see the likes of Charles Finney (1792-1875), a school teacher turned Lawyer turned Preacher. ?Quotations from Finney?s law books pointed him to the Bible; he soon purchased a copy of the holy book and became involved in a local church. In 1821, Finney experienced a dramatic conversion, with his conversion came a profound sense of a call to preach the gospel.? A staunch believer in revivalism he traveled through many states preaching the word of God. His goal was for men to bear fruit demonstrating their beliefs through working with the poor, living a simplistic life, speaking against slavery of other human beings and surprisingly enough, women?s rights.
Although extremely limited, it was with the Emancipation Proclamation the beginning of where we find ourselves (even today) regarding race relations. Obviously we have come to realize how deeply embedded this hatred was for the African American. Many gains have been made, but in many situations we continue to struggle. Why did Lincoln do this, what motivated him? Why was he not afraid? Was it as the movie portrayed? We know that Lincoln grew up in a very religious household, his parents were staunch Baptists; however he never joined a church himself. He did periodically attend a protestant church with his wife and children and there were snatches of scripture found in his speeches. It appears that he was just a good and faithful man; one with the wits to out think and out maneuver a congress toward passing the 13th amendment which reads ?Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.?
In our studies in this class, History of Christianity during this time period has had no mention of African Americans, not even of slavery. The African and African American presence is totally obliterated. I found this to be unthinkable, unconscionable and unacceptable. It is true that the African American was thought of as less than human. To add to the pain of this, the only women mentioned were those that were married to prominent men. Let it suffice to say that research is in order.
As I begin to focus on the plight of Jarena Lee, an African American who although born during slavery, was born to free parents. Lest we forget it was still the time of the slave, colored, Negro, Black, Afro-American, African, and African-American. In spite of enslavement, we are able to find a rich Christian heritage and legacy. It is in the African History of African Americans (1766) that we find the first talk of religion within the African community. ?The natives believed that there is one creator of all things and that he lives in the sun, is girded around with a belt, that he may never eat or drink; but according to some he smokes a pipe. They believe he governs events, especially our deaths or captivity.?

i Tyson, John R., Invitation to Christian Spirituality-An Ecumenical Theology. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford. 1999. Chapter 4, Modern Spirituality, page 342

ii Sernett, Milton C., African American Religious History, a Documentary Witness. Second Edition. Duke University Press, Durham and London, 1999. Page 13

I have used this source once before, I was satisfied with writer writergrrl101. Do not hold the paper up if the writer is unavailable. I had difficulty accessing my paper last time and do not recall where I finally found it; I am not clear on what you mean by bulk mail. Please email me at jackierb2000@yahoo.com to let me know if you have received this email and if your are able to meet the specifications described. Thank you

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