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Assignment Questions

Evaluation on the Effectiveness of Tuberculosis Prevention

This particular proposal will be for funding purposes for a future intervention. It will be similar to but not exactly like the NIH-formatted grant proposal (PHS 398) for a research project, which utilizes the community intervention trial as my primary study design.
Proposal choice topic: To evaluate the effectiveness of tuberculosis (TB) prevention and a TB-treatment intervention on males newly released from New York City Prison/Correctional Facility (Riker’s Island) who have been diagnosed with latent TB infection (LTBI) or active TB disease (TB).
• Specific Aims (up to 1 page)—includes goals/objectives of the study and list of hypotheses
• Background and Significance (4-5 pages)
o Understanding of the Problem–review of relevant literature on the public health problem, prior testing of the interventions, special characteristics of the target population, etc.
o Rationale–justification for the study, importance of the research questions, etc.
o Conceptual Framework
• Research Methodology (no more than 10 pages)
o Introduction–overview of proposed study
o Study Design (**Community intervention trial)
o Intervention–describe the intervention and how/why you chose it; identify the treatment arms; clearly define what the control condition entails; describe site coordination
o Study Sample
? Target population [diagnosed with latent TB infection (LTBI) or active TB disease (TB)]
? Sample size–it is not necessary for you to do the calculations, just identify the factors that you would need to consider in determining an appropriate sample size at both the individual and group levels
? Sampling strategies
? Sampling frames
? Recruitment strategies
? Allocation to treatment arms–describe the process
o Study Variables/Measures–key variables include independent variables, dependent variables, confounders
o Data Collection
? Data collection methods–which ones you will use and why you chose them
? Data collection instrument(s)–describe the instruments that you might want to use (e.g. survey, focus group guide etc)
? Data management plan
o Data Analysis
? Overview–goals of the data analysis; special analytic considerations
? Hypothesis 1–Please note that you should have a sub-section for each specific aim. In each sub-section, outline the analytic techniques that you might use to test each one.
? Hypothesis 2, etc.
Example of hypothesis: Null Hypothesis (#1): A tuberculosis (TB) prevention and TB treatment intervention on males whom have been diagnosed with latent TB infection (LTBI) or active TB disease (TB) and are newly released from Correctional facilities will not make a difference in their knowledge of TB and their communities.

Alternate Hypothesis (#1): A tuberculosis (TB) prevention and TB treatment intervention on males whom have been diagnosed with latent TB infection (LTBI) or active TB disease (TB) and are newly released from Correctional facilities will make a difference in their knowledge of TB and their communities.

Rationale: In spite of tremendous development over the years, TB still remains one of the most deadly diseases in the world, claiming more than 2 million lives annually with 10 million new cases diagnosed every year. Statistics have shown that there is a disproportionately high percentage of TB cases occur among persons incarcerated in US correctional facilities. Surveillance data reported that 3.9% of all TB cases in the US were diagnosed while in a correctional facility (CDC, 2007). Hence, effective TB prevention and control measures in correctional facilities are needed to increase educational knowledge of TB and reduce TB rates among inmates once released and the general US population.

Null Hypothesis (#2): A tuberculosis (TB) prevention and TB treatment intervention on males whom have been diagnosed with latent TB infection (LTBI) or active TB disease (TB) and are newly released from New York City Correctional facilities will not reduce the rates of infection.

Alternate Hypothesis (#2): A tuberculosis (TB) prevention and TB treatment intervention on males whom have been diagnosed with latent TB infection (LTBI) or active TB disease (TB) and are newly released from New York City Correctional facilities will reduce the rates of infection.

Rationale: Since rates of TB infection in jails continues to increase, there are several new implementations and recommendations coming from both the New York City’s Health Department and the CDC regarding TB infections amongst inmates housed in county jails; the focus is for all health providers, specialists and educators to continue their efforts in treatment of the inmates diagnosed with latent TB infection (LTBI) or active TB disease by i.e. Ensuring transitions from incarceration to communities, developing client-specific transitional plans that addresses care, prevention and support service needs etc. Thus, the intervention will help to reduce the rates prevent the development and spread of TB infection; and successfully treat communities of newly released males, transitioning out of those New York City Correctional Facilities.

?
• Human Subjects Research (no more than 1 page) — provide evidence that ethical principles will be upheld, identify risks and benefits to subjects
• Discussion (1-2 pages)
o Strengths and Limitations–include anticipated problems and possible solutions; don’t forget to consider your application of community-based public health research principles as a strength
o Summary–Brief, concluding remarks. Stress the importance of the study in terms of its improvement upon prior work and its potential for benefit to public health. For whom will the research findings be important? How will you inform those individuals/groups?
• References (APA format) (no page limit)
• Appendices (no page limit)
o List of Key Personnel/Skills
o Draft Timeline (Proposing between January 2009 and December 2009)
o Others (optional)
-No footnotes required, though quotations, parenthetical citations can be added to the proposal as needed.

Thanks in advance for the proposal preparation as a guide.

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