A Critical Review of Adult Education within Human Resource Development: Maximizing the Learning Outcomes at Work
1. Individual chapters:
? Introduction (Statement of the Problem)
? Literature Review
2. Paper idea
As we move from industrial era to technology/information age, learning once reserved for the certain groups is increasingly available to men and women of all age and all levels. It results in the loosen boundaries of adult learning in terms of the format, location, and occasion. For adult learners, the purpose of learning is being changed from not just ?gaining formal qualifications but also to obtain and keep employment, develop expertise in a leisure activity, deal with changes on relationships, or manage personal finances? (Harrison et al, p.1, 2002). As a result, learning is now seen as a key feature of participation in the modern sociality and economy.
Adults learn in various formats. Holton & Baldwin (2003) state that when the learningoccurs at the workplace, organizations concern about how to make positive connections between learning/training and human performance. However, they further point out that ?only 10 percent of learning transfer into job performance?, and reports from the field suggest that a substantial part of organizations? investment in HRD is wasted due to poor learning transfer? (p.4). Yet, the point we would like to investigate is what makes the deficiency. Is there a contradiction existing in adult education and learning at workplace?
Numbers of researchers argue that both Human Resource Development (HRD) and Adult Education view adult learning as being the central to their theory and practice (Knowles et al, 1998; Merriam & Caffarella, 1999; Merriam & Brockett, 1997). However, while the programs related to adult learning continue to expand in both formal and non-formal educational environments (Merriam & Caffarella, 1999), the purposes of them differ (Knowles et al, 1998). Knowles et al further explain that the core difference between these two concepts is that Adult Education is primarily focused on individual control, while HRD is typically controlled by organization.
HRD is an art of managing individuals and groups? changes through learning in organizations (Chalofsky and Lincoln, 1983). The purpose of HRD is to ?organize the learning activities within the organization in order to improve performance and/or personal growth for the purpose of improving the job, the individual, and/or the organization? (Gilley & Egglands, 1989, p.5). On the other hand, as Knowles et al (1998) state, ?for many, best adult education practices allow maximum individual control? (p115). From this perspective, we may notice the difference between Adult Education and HRD in terms of the goal of learning. As a result, it may be a challenge for professionals in the field of HRD to balance the nature of Adult Education and the practice of workplace learning.
In this study, we are trying to investigate the nature of these two fields in order to recognize the balance between individual learning and human performance at workplace. In other words, we aim to become conscious about how to integrate the principles of adult education with the practice of workplace learning and make the learning transfer to job performance successfully.
Chalofsky, N., and Lincoln, C. (1983). Up the HRD Ladder: A Guide For Profesional Growth. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Gilley, J., & Eggland, S. (1989). Principles of Human Resource Development Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Harrison, R., Reeve, F., Hanson, A., & Clarke, J. (2002). Introduction – Perspectives on learning . In Harrison, R., Reeve, F., Hanson, A., & Clarke, J. (Eds.), Supporting Lifelong Learning Volume 1 (pp. 1-7). New York, NY: RoutledgeFalmer.
Knowles, M., Holton, E., & Swanson, R. (1998). The Adult Learner – The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human Resource Development (5th ed.). Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing Company.
Merriam, S., & Brockett, R. (1997). The profession and Practice of Adult Education – An Introduction. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Merriam, S., & Caffarella, R. (1999). Learning in Adulthood – A Comprehensive Guide (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Holton, E., & Baldwin, T. (2003). Making Transfer Happen: An Action Perspective on Learning Transfer Systems. In Holton, E., & Baldwin, T. (Eds.), Improving LearningTransfer in Organizations (pp.3-15). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
The most important references:
? Swanson, R. & Holton, E. (2001). Foundstions of Human Resource Development. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.
? Knowles, M., Holton, E., & Swanson, R. (1998). The Adult Learner – The Definitive Classoc in Adult Education and Human Resource Development (5th ed.). Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing Company.
? Merriam, S., & Caffarella, R. (1999). Learning in Adulthood – A Comprehensive Guide (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
? Marchese, T.J. (1997). The New Conversations About Learning. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.aahe.org/pubs/TM-essay.htm.
? Stein, D. Situated Learning in Adult Education. ERIC Digest. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.ericdigests.org/1998-3/adult-education.html.
? Watkins, K. E. and Marsick, V. J. (1992). Towards a theory of informal and incidental learning in organizations.International Journal of Lifelong Learning, 11 (4), 287-300.
? Enos, M. D., Kehrhahn, M. T., & Bell, A. (2003). Informal learning and the transfer of learning: How managers develop proficiency. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 14 (4), 369-387
? Tennant, M. Is transfer of learning possible? In D. Boud and J. Garrick (Eds) Understanding workplace learning. London, Routledge. 1999, 165-179.
? Thompson, Brooks & Liza’rraga, Perceived Transfer of Learning: from the distance education classroom to the workplace. In Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, October 2003, v. 28, n. 5. (a short paper from the web is: http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:0jo-zxm9YbwJ:www.collegeofthedesert.edu/uploadedFiles/transferoflearning.doc+transfer+of+learning+adult+education&hl=en )
1. Short, D., Brandenburg, D., May, G., &Bierema, L. (2002). HRD: A Voice to Integrate the Demands of System Changes, People, Learning, and Performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 13(3), 237-241.
2. Kuchinke, P. (1999). Adult Development towards What End? A Philosophical Analysis of The Concept As Reflected in The Research, Theory, and Practice of Human Resource Development. Adult Education Quarterly, 49(4), 148-162.
3. Rossiter, M. (1999). A Narrative Approach to Development: Implications for Adult Education. American Association for Adult and Continuing Education, 50 (1), 56-71.
4. Reference: Kuchinke, P. (1999). Adult Development towards What End? A Philosophical Analysis of The Concept As Reflected in The Research, Theory, and Practice of Human Resource Development. Adult Education Quarterly, 49(4), 148-162.
5. Holmes, A. (1998). Performance-Based Approaches to Human Resource Development. New Directions for Students Services, no.84, Winter, 15-27.
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