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Assignment Questions

Principles of Adult Learning


I am taking an online class focusing on the “Principles of Adult Learning”. I have 2 that I will be farming out to your service, both requiring short essay responses to questions. Please read the lesson below and answer the questions at the very bottom of the lesson to the best of your ability. Be sure to cite all references used in APA format. Thanks.

– Lesson Twelve — Topic: Learning Style


1. To understand the role of learning style in the teaching/learning transaction.

2. To be able to explain the Learning Contract as a technique in teaching/learning.

I. Learning Style

1) The Importance of Learning Style: When educators think about individual differences, those things that usually come to mind are related to ability and interest. While these factors are certainly crucial in the instructional equation, there is at least one other factor that has a significant impact on the outcomes of instruction. That factor is learning style.

2) Simply stated, learning style is the “way in which each person absorbs and retains information and/or skills.” It refers to the way in which each individual collects, organizes and transforms information. Among other things, it influences the setting in which people learn best, the kind of subjects they want to learn about, and how they will approach the learning situation.

3) The Literature on Learning Style has significantly increased in the past 15 — 20 years. Along with the increase in research, has come some confusion with each researcher approaching the area of learning style from differing points of view; using different classifications, and using varying terminology.

We will look at a sampling of this research and try to draw some practical conclusions that have implications for (1) removing barriers to learning, and (2) creating an environment where learning may be maximized.

4) Open and review the following hyperlink, presented as a sampling of the literature on Learning Style. http://www.learnativity.com/learningstyles.html

5) Keep the following concepts in mind:

1. All people have an identifiable and preferred learning style. Experts generally concede that every person has a unique approach to learning; however, they do not agree on how to define or explain a learning style.

Some people emphasize the cognitive (mental processing of information) aspects; others highlight the environmental (conditions under which learning occurs; including social sets, access, location, etc.) aspects of learning styles.

2. We will try to break this down into a fairly straightforward approach to understanding the concept of learning style. (What does the facilitator of learning, need to understand about the concept of learning style).

3. One approach to learning style is to look at possible modalities that make up each person’s unique style.

Possible Modalities:

• Perceptual — Relates to the means through which information is extracted from the environment by the senses.

Print: Can you learn something better after seeing it or after writing it?

Aural: Do you tend to remember and repeat those ideas you heard verbally presented?

Interactive: Do you enjoy question/answer sessions or small group discussions?

Visual: Do you create visual images as you think?

Haptic: Do you feel that you have to touch the new things you are learning? Are hands-on experiences important to you?

Kinesthetic: Do you think that you learn better when you are able to move during your learning?

Olfactory: Do smells have any significance for you?

• Cognitive — Refers to the mental processing of that information.

• Emotional — Includes the personal feeling, attitudes, and personality states which influence information gathering.

• Social — Reflects social sets which could inhibit or enhance the learning process for each individual.

6) Five Learning Styles (Richard Felder, North Carolina State University)

Visual and Verbal Learners (Input)

– If you are a Visual Learner, you like to “see” what others are trying to tell you (pictures, diagrams, sketches, maps, written notes, etc.)

– If you are a Verbal Learner, your preference is for written and spoken words.

– Most people in our culture are visual

• Active and Reflective Learners (Processing)

– Active learners tend to process information while doing something active (talking, moving)

– Reflective learners tend to process introspectively

• Sensing and Intuitive Learners (Perception)

– A sensing learner (perceptual) tends to focus on sensory information (what is seen, heard, touched, etc.)

– An intuitive learner tends to focus on intuitive information (ideas, memories, possibilities)

Inductive and Deductive Learners (Organization)

– Induction: Begin with observations and data, then infer governing rules and principles. (eg. information and data about learners and the learning process and then inferring ?principles of good practice/teaching methods and techniques)

– Deduction: Begin with rules and principles, then deduce consequences and phenomena. (eg. If established methods and techniques are implemented by the learning facilitator, they should result in certain outcomes for the learner)

Sequential and Global Learners (Understanding)

– Sequential learners learn in linearly connected steps

– Global learners learn in large connected chunks

7) Friedman and Alley (1984) identified six principles that make meaning out of the research on learning styles:

1. Both the style by which the teacher prefers to teach and the style by which the student prefers to learn can be identified.

Note: There are many instruments designed to identify the individual’s learning style. Also, research has shown that one can identify one?s own learning style

2. Teachers need to guard against over teaching by their own preferred learning styles.

3. Teachers are most helpful when they assist students in identifying and learning through their own style preferences.

Note: Domino (1971) grouped college students according to their perceptions of how they learned. Some of the groups were then taught in a manner consonant with their perceived learning style, while others were taught in a manner opposite to their perceived style. The testing data revealed that the students who had been exposed to a teaching style consonant with the ways they believed they learned scored higher on tests, fact knowledge, attitude, and efficiency of work than those who had been taught in a manner dissonant with their orientation.

4. Students should have the opportunity to learn through their preferred learning style.

5. Students should be encouraged to diversify their style preference.

6. Teachers can develop specific learning activities which reinforce each modality or style.

8) The most widely recognized Learning Styles

1. Visual Learners; Auditory Learners; Kinesthetic/Tactile Learners.

a. These styles are perceptual strengths. Preferred way of interacting with information.

b. According to Dunn, the learning-style distribution in an “average” group is: 30 percent to 40 percent visual, 20 percent to 30 percent auditory, and 30 percent to 40 percent kinesthetic/tactual.

c. In addition to the preferred perceptual style, there are compounding factors such as environment (time of day, length of session, involvement with others, etc.) and processing style (global/analytic). According to Dunn, 55 percent of adults are global learners (overview then facts), 28 percent are analytic (facts and then the big picture), the remaining (17 percent can process information comfortably either way and adjust according to circumstances.

9) If you would like to quick check your own preferred style, here are a couple of brief instruments that will allow you to do that:



***II. Assignment for Lesson # 12. ***

How does learning style impact or relate to learning contracts? (*100 words minimum)

As an adult educator, how would you use knowledge related to learning styles? (*100 words minimum)

After taking the style inventory on page 283, relate how consistent your results are with what you imagined your style to be. (*200 words minimum)


– Lesson Thirteen– Topic: Diversity/ Multicultural Education

Web assignment: The web site of the “Center for Multicultural Education”


To be able to determine those characteristics, values, and differences that identify a diverse population
To become familiar with diversity and multicultural education

I. Information

Diversity is not simple. It is a very broad area and is becoming more relevant to education with each passing year. It is important that everyone have a deep understanding of diversity and what it involves.

***II. Assignment for class # 13. ***

1. Go to Google and type in “Center for Multicultural Education”. Click on “resources” ??”there are 5 items listed, numbers 2 through 5 are articles??”select and read one of these articles. Identify the major key points (both positive and negative) regarding diversity and or multicultural education and give your opinion on each. (*300 words)

2. Now, click on “links”. Select one link and summarize what material and information is contained there. Explain the relevance of this information to you personally and professionally. (*300 words)

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