Page 4 definition of religion developed for this examination of the world’s religions is the following:
Religion is human transformation in response to perceived ultimacy.
*** He wants definition of this related Lakota and Consumerism in own words.
7 questions to be answered
What Does It Mean to Be Human?
Each religion has its own view of what constitutes human nature and the relationship between humans and other beings. If the religion is spiritual (rather than secular), humans are understood to have not only material, but also spiritual natures. Fore example, some spiritual religions claim that humans have individual souls, while others reject the notion of separate human souls. Religions also place humans in the world. Fox example, some religions are anthropocentric (human-centered), claiming a unique spirituals identity for humans and a relationship of dominance over the rest of the world: others are biocentric (centered on all living beings together), rejecting the view that humans have special spiritual status or are superior to other forms of life. Still others might be called exocentric (centered on all reality together), embracing the spiritual interconnectedness and ultimate identity of all life.
2. What Is the Basic Human Problem?
Each religion identifies a situation common to humanity, which results in the need for transformation. For example, some religions identify the fundamental human dilemma as entrapment in a cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. Others see the human problem as a lack of harmony with the rest of life. Still others see the problem as human separation or alienation from a personal god. people who produce religion not the religion.
3.What Is the Cause of the Problem?
Religions also include understandings of what is at the root of the basic human dilemma. Religions that see the problem as separation from a personal god often see the cause as human disobedience of the deity’s will. By contrast, religions identifying the problem as being stuck in the cycle of rebirth tend to view human desire and ignorance of the spiritual as the causes. And religions stressing disharmony put the emphasis on human forgetfulness of the way of harmony.
4.What Is the End or Goal of Transformation?
If religions identify a basic human problem and the cause of the dilemma, they also envision an ideal state for humans. We may call this state the end or goal of transformation. For example, religions in which the problem is entrapment in the cycle of rebirth claim that the ideal state is liberation from the cycle: typically, they are rich in imagery of the nature of the liberated existence. However, religions focusing on human disobedience of a personal god portray a state of existence in which humans are reconciled with the deity, typically enjoying a life beyond earthly existence.
5. What Are the Means of Transformation?
At the heart of each religion are means that will enable the transformation to occur. For religions in which liberation from the cycle of rebirth is the end or goal, the means of transformation focus on the overcoming of material attachment and spiritual ignorance. However, if the end or goal is repairing the breach with a personal god caused by human disobedience, the means will involve reorientation to the way of life ordained by the deity. For religions in which the end or goal is harmony with all living beings, the means typically are all encompassing, involving every aspect of life.
6.What Is the Nature of Reality?
If religions do indeed order reality, then it is important to understand how each religion constructs time and space. For example, for religions in which the issue is the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth, the understanding of time is obviously cyclical, with beginnings and endings of each cycle. By contrast, other religions understand time as moving from a beginning to a definitive end. Space is also understood from the perspective of the perceived ultimacy. For example, as we shall see in Chapter Two, indigenous religions are typically rooted in particular places and construct ordered space around a specific center.
7. What is the Sacred and How May the Sacred Be Known?
In this study we use the term “sacred” as a synonym for the perceived ultimacy that distinguishes each religion. While it is common to think of the sacred as synonymous with the spiritual, that is not the case in our approach. Rather, that which is perceived as ultimate may be either spiritual or secular. The sacred may be the personal god or gods of a theistic religion or an impersonal energy or force. An important and related question is how the sacred may be made known. For example, for religions in which the problem is spiritual ignorance. The sacred is often made known through a disciplined pursuit of spiritual knowledge. However, monotheistic religions often claim that the only way the sacred may be known is through some act of self-relation on the part of the god at the center of the religion, typically through the agency of a person or persons.
It may be useful for you at this point to consider your own responses to these seven questions. Do you find them difficult to answer, or do responses spring easily to mind? Regardless of your answer, as you study other religious worldviews, you will have the opportunity to reflect on your own. But remember; please place priority on understanding other religions, before you evaluate them plus a conclusion
Suggestions on required paper:
Do not use value judgment.
This paper is very difficult to write but it is a sophomore level
Abstract theory connects to concrete religions. Consumerism/Sports & the Yoruba or Lakota Indian.
Use MLA format – specific page # where you found the reference.
Organization – very difficult concepts – put in your own words, thoughts is critical. Focus on what you want to say.
Cut out everything that is not the element. Only 1000-1200 words for entire paper.
Begin with definition connect the two use own language.
Take each question – 1 paragraph to each question.
Begin with the question – consumerism means this. Lakota means this- no really right or wrong answers.
Very Important – normal consumerism or a person for whom a consumer it has become a religion – define the difference. The ultimate to that person. (ultimacy)
The Indian religion DOES have correct answers.
Do not start with “ the problem with this religion is”:
This definition and framework is then used to understand every religion we will be studying, and so it is essential to understand. On page 7 of the course textbook, William Young states that consumerism is considered by some “to be the fastest growing religion in the contemporary world.”
In this paper you are to explain how consumerism could become a person’s religion in the first place. This will require you to distinguish between “every day” consumers and people for whom “consumerism” has become a religion. In your paper explain how a person could through attitudes, beliefs, and actions turn consumerism into a religion. In order to do this you will need to explain how someone who practiced this religion would behave, and what their beliefs would be. The idea is to compare your newly created “consumerist religion” and the Yoruba or Lakota religions to all seven parts of the phenomenological framework given on page 14 and 15. As an alternative to discussing consumerism, you can consider what is probably the #2 religion in America, namely sports.
The paper should be no less than 1000 words and no more than 1200 words. Review the syllabus and note the matrix I use to grade papers. Quote and “Works Cited” page using MLA format. If you do not know how to do this check out the on-line library resource guide.
Basic outline of what I am looking for:
I. Demonstrate that you understand Young’s definition of religion by relating it to Consumerism and one of the indigenous religions (one or two paragraphs).
II. Compare and contrast the two religions to all seven parts of the phenomenological framework (probably a paragraph on each).
III. Draw a conclusion (probably only one paragraph).
Avoid inserting your own value judgments on these religions. Remember using the phenomenological approach we are trying to understand not judge.
Outline your work first.
Use cyber-tutor and library resources.
Some error has occured.