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Assignment Questions

The atrocites in China 1939 and the Tokyo war crimes trial

Hi my dear writer,this paper has to analize where does the Nanking massacre falls under international law and actions taken by the international community? That alone consists of multiple questions. among other things you need to determine the following: What exactly, in the eyes of international law, does the massacre consist of? In other words, what is it regarded as an instance of? (War crimesCrimes against humanity? Any of these? None of these?) How has it been treated under international law? How WOULD it be treated today? What actions, if any , have been taken or proposed against the perpretrators of the massacre? Considering the fact that this is an open wound for China, and the object of ongoing contention in China’s relations with Japan, there must be a huge body of literature on these and related questions.I don’t have time for revision. i had a terrible experience with superiorpaper.com, and I am so upset, crying and i feel so lost. Please , I beg you , try to help me. If you do a great paper, I will give you a big tip (bonus), trust me.Can you do a search in law journals?
The fact is that my professor wants from us to have a point of view( an argument, a thesis)that we explain, and which takes into account other points of view. He said that we have to be mindful of the requirement of the paper: Although the paper will discuss the book you choose , the paper in not a book repeort and our research should not be confined to that volume. I don’t need the summmary of the event( The Nanking massacre).i don’t want a lot of quotations, and if you gonna use some, please make sure that those are short and with quotation’s marks.
Can you see “the international Military Tribunal for the Far East”.
Three types of crimes:” Class A” (crimes against peace), “Class B”( war crimes), and
“Class C”( crimes against humanity).(wikipedia) The first refers to their joint Conspiracy to start and wage the war, and the latter two refers to Atrocities including The Nanking Massacre.
See also” Definitions of Japanese War Crimes”.
The Japanese government takes the position that as Japan was not a signatory to Geneva Conventions, it violated no international Law. However, many of the alleged crimescommitted by imperial personnel were also violations of the Japanese code of military law, which Japanese authorities either ignored, or failed to enforce.
The empire also violated provisions of the Treaty of Versailles such as article 171, which outlawed the use of poison gas ( chemical weapons), and other international agreements signed by Japan, such as The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 which protect prisoners of war (POWs).

Trial of Japanese War Criminals, Documents: 1. Opening Statement by Joseph B. Keenan, Chief of Counsel, 2. Charter of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, 3. Indictment. Washington: Dept. Of State, 1946. Appendix D’s “Particulars of Breaches,” pp. 93-96, lists categories of inhumane treatment of prisoners of war and civilian internees in violation of the Hague and Geneva conventions specifying murder, beatings, torture, ill-treatment, illegal employment, and the rape of female prisoners by members of Japanese forces. Appendix D’s Section Ten refers to violations of the Hague Convention such as “Killing enemies, who, having laid down their arms or no longer having means of defense, had surrendered…”

Can you see, please also?
1- ““No. One War Criminal “not brought to Trail.”
http://centurychina.com
2-Journals about war crimes on China. Nanjing Massacre and the Tokyo War CrimesTrial.
www.cnd.org/njmassacre
During the Tokyo Trial, the Massacre was treated as one unique example of the atrocities committed in Asia, rather than as separate charge.
a. Brackman (reporter at the trail and author of the book “The other Nuremberg” commented: “the Rape of Nanking was not the kind of isolated incident common to all wars. It was deliberated. It was policy.
b. Unconventional Warfare: Narcotics and Bacteriological warfare.
In 1976, the Tokyo Broadcasting System confirmed the existence of TAMA detachment. Five living members of the top-secret operation told a Japanese reporter that they had escaped indictment as war criminals in return for divulging their research to the U.S. Authorities.
It is very important to stress “The Law of War” , and “ Violations of the Laws of War”.
Also “Military necessity”( In times of war and armed conflict , collective punishment has resulted in atrocities, and is a violation of the laws of war and the Geneva Conventions),” Collective punishment” and “Command Responsibility.”
I found some great books about this issue.
1- “The Tokyo war crimes trial: the pursuit of justice in the wake of World
War II “, author is Yuma Totani.
It is a great book and talks about
• Leadership responsibility for war crimes
• Nanking & death railway
• Documenting Japanese atrocities.
• The first trial analysts.
2-“Judgment” that talks about
• Establishment and proceeding of the tribunal.
• The law.
• Obligations assumed and rights acquired by Japan
• The military domination of Japan and preparation of the war.
• Japanese aggression against China.
• The Pacific War
• Conventional war crimes ( atrocities)
• Findings on the counts of the indictments
• Verdicts
3- Interrogation of Japanese prisoners (microform)
4- Open secrets of American Foreign policy from Gordon Tullock.
OK , I don’t know if you can find those book, I found those at the Law school Library, at my University. You can work untill August 12, but please try to do your best, because I don’t have time for revision. I will fax and e-mail some material.

There are faxes for this order.

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