All essays must be fully and accurately referenced and must include, at the end, a bibliography of material consulted in the preparation of the essay. There are two well known systems of referencing which can be used for academic work. They are the Harvard System and the Notes system. Whichever system you employ or however you choose to approach referencing you must be consistent throughout. The following examples derive from the Harvard System which is the most commonly used system.
Book with one author:
Addams, Jane (1911) Twenty years at Hull–house. Urban: University of Illinois Press
Book with two authors:
Alcock, Pete and Craig, Gary (ed.) (2001) International social policy. Basingstoke: Pelgrave Publishing
Chapter in a book:
Amott, Teresa (1990) Black women and AFDC: making entitlement out of necessity in
Gordon, Linda (ed.) Women, the state and welfare. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press
Two authors of a chapter in a book:
Clark, John, Gewirtz, Sharon and Eugene McLaughlin (2000) Reinventing the Welfare State. In Clark, John, Gewirtz, Sharon and Eugene McLaughlin (eds.) New managerialism new welfare? London: Sage Publication
Editors of a book:
Cochrane, Allen and Clark, John (eds.) (1993) Comparing welfare states: Britain in an international context. London: Sage in association with Open University Press
Rogers, Antoine and Glasby, Jon (2001) A tale of two cities: the contract culture in
Birmingham and Chicago in Research Policy and Planning, vol.19, no. 3
Cauthen, Nancy and Edwin, Amenta (1996) ‘Not for widows only: institutional politics and the formative years of Aid to Dependent Children’ in American Sociological Review vol. 61, June, pp. 427-448
Casillas, Ofelia (2002) ‘Changes urged at Maryville’ in Chicago Tribune 18 December, pp.1
Birmingham Settlement (1999) Birmingham Settlement Annual Report. Birmingham: Birmingham Settlement
White House Archives (2005) Inaugural 2005 President George W. Bush [online] available from http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/01/20050120-1.html [accessed 20 May 2005]
Additional Guidelines for Website
There is no standard format for citing internet resources within academia and different publishers, academic journals and universities have their own styles. Please find below the recommended format for website referencing within the Department of Social and Policy Studies and all students submitting coursework within the department are required to follow the format as set out below.
The term Online in brackets indicates the medium consulted, and should be used for all internet sources.
The Accessed date is the date on which you viewed or downloaded the document. This allows for any subsequent changes to the document. Remember that pages are constantly erased from the web and there is no guarantee that you will ever find that page again.
1. Individual Works: For example
Trangmar, K, (1999), Y2K: the cost effective solution to tackling the Millennium Bug (Online). Harlend Computer Services. http://www.cix.co.uk/-harlend/y (Accessed 26 June 2008).
2. Electronic Journals: For example
Cumper, P. and Rodgers, M.E. (1997), Equality for All? Higher Education and the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 Web Journal of Current Legal Issues (Online). 1997, 3. Available from: http://www.ncl.ac.uk/-nlawwww/1997/issue3/cumper3.html (Accessed 30 June 1997).
When using the Harvard Reference System it is acceptable to list the author and date of the work along with its (Online) status and the (date accessed) for a text reference. In your bibliography you are required to provide the full reference in line with the examples provided above.
Harvard Reference in the body of the text: (Trangmar: (1999) (Online) (Accessed 26 June 2008))
Bibliography Reference: Trangmar, K, (1999), Y2K: the cost effective solution to tackling the Millennium Bug (Online). Harlend Computer Services. http://www.cix.co.uk/-harlend/y (Accessed 26 June 2008).
Grammar, Sentence Structure and Expression in English
You need to produce essays and exam scripts which are grammatically correct. Your written material will be subject to university level standards and criteria related to grammar, sentence structure and expression in English. Submitted material which contains grammatical errors and poor sentence structure will receive a reduction in points which will result in a lower overall mark.
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